Tandem VHH/Nanobody (single domain antibody) – Introduction


Since 1975, monoclonal antibodies have been successfully used for the diagnosis and therapeutics. In 1993, heavy-chain-only antibodies which bind to antigens was discovered in camelids. The variable domain of heavy chain antibody (VHH) was called as nanobodies and it was anticipated as the better therapeutic antibodies in future due to its high stability, refoldability, and manipulable characteristics. VHH has also been effectively used for the diagnosis, bioimaging, immunoassay and affinity purification.