Format of bispecific antibodies (BsAbs)-Hetero H, CrossMab


CrossMab technology enforces correct light chain association based on the domain crossover of immunoglobulin domains in the Fab region of the bispecific antibody. CrossMab technology allow the generation of various bispecific antibody formats, including bi- (1+1), tri- (2+1) and tetra-(2+2) valent bispecific antibodies, as well as non-Fc tandem antigen-binding fragment (Fab)-based antibodies. These formats may be derived from any existing antibody pair using domain crossover, without the need for the identification of common light chains, post-translational processing/in vitro chemical assembly or the introduction of a set of mutations enforcing correct light chain association. The basis of the CrossMab technology is the crossover of antibody domains within one arm of a bispecific IgG antibody enabling correct chain association, whereas correct heterodimerization of the heavy chains can be achieved by the knob-into-hole technology or charge interactions. This can be achieved by exchange of either the Fab domains (in the CrossMabFab format), or only the variable VH-VL domains (CrossMabVH-VL format) or the constant CH1-CL domains (CrossMabCH1-CL format) within the Fab-fragment (Fig. 1). This class of therapeutics antibodies have novel mechanisms of actions as compared to conventional therapeutic antibodies and have a major impact on the treatment of various diseases, including oncology, infectious diseases, autoimmunity, CNS, and metabolic diseases. Taken together, CrossMab technology has proven to be very useful for the fast and straightforward generation of bispecific antibody formats to tackle novel biological challenges and help to develop novel therapeutic concepts.

Fig. 1. figure illustrate the different possibilities to generate asymmetric bivalent bispecific 1 + 1 heterodimeric CrossMabs. (Klein, C., Schaefer, W., Regula, J.T., Dumontet, C., Brinkmann, U., Bacac, M., Umaña, P. (2019) Engineering therapeutic bispecific antibodies using CrossMab technology. Methods 154:21-3)

Formats of bispecific antibodies (BsAbs)

Many formats have been developed for BsAb generation as listed in the following table.

FormatSchematic structureDescriptionExample BsAbTrademark Company
tandem VHHTandem VHH fragment-based BsAbN/A
tandem scFvPicture loading failed.Tandem ScFv fragment-based BsAbAMG330BiTETMAmgen
Dual-affinity re-targeting antibodyPicture loading failed.Tandem domain-exchanged Fv (can also be used to fuse with Fc domain to create whole Abs)FlotetuzumabDARTTMMacrogenics
DiabodyPicture loading failed.dimer of single-chain Fv (scFv) fragmentvixtimotamabReSTORETMAmphivena Therapeutics
(scFv)2-FabPicture loading failed.a Fab domain and two scFv domains bindA-337ITabTMGeneron/EVIVE Biotech
Rat–mouse hybrid IgGPicture loading failed.Full-size IgG-like half antibodies from two different speciesCatumaxomabTriomabTMTrion Pharma
Hetero heavy chain, Common light chainPicture loading failed.Hetero heavy chain, Common light chainEmicizumabART-IgTMGenentech/ Chugai/Roche
Controlled Fab arm exchangePicture loading failed.Recombin the parental half antibodies JNJ-64007957DuobodyTMGenmab/ Janssen
Hetero H, forced HL IgG1Picture loading failed.KIH technology for heterodimerization of 2 distinct H chains, replacing the native disulfide bond in one of the CH1-CL interfaces with an engineered disulfide bond to enhance the cognate of H and L paringMEDI5752DuetMabTMMedImmune/ AstraZeneca
cH IgG1Picture loading failed.Identical heavy chains; 2 different light chains: one kappa (κ) and one lambda (λ)NI-1701κλ bodyTMNovimmune SA
Hetero H, CrossMabPicture loading failed.KIH technology; domain crossover of immunoglobulin domains in the Fab regionVanucizumabCrossMabTMRoche
scFv-Fab IgGPicture loading failed.Fab-Fc; ScFv-FcVibecotamab;
XmabTM (the engineered Fc to enhance the generation of heterodimeric Fc);
Xencor/Amgen; YZYBio
VH1-VH2-CH1-Fc1(G1) x VL2-VL1-CL-Fc2(G1)Picture loading failed.2 binding motif in one half antibodySAR440234CODV-IgTMSanofi
VL1-CL1-VH2-CH2-Fc x VH1-CH1 x VL2-CL2Picture loading failed.2 binding motif in one half antibodyEMB-01FIT-IgTMEPIMAB BIOTHERAPEUTICS
VH-1-TCR Cα x VL-1-TCR Cβ; VH-2-CH-2-Fc x VL-2-CL-2Picture loading failed.KIH technology; TCR Cα/Cβ is used to substitute the CH1 and CL domain in one armWuXibodyTMWuXi Biologics
C-terminal linker of FcPicture loading failed.Link the other molecules at the C-terminal of FcAPVO442ADAPTIR-FLEXTMAptevo Therapeutics
Fc antigen binding sitePicture loading failed.2 natural binding sites; 2 additional binding sites in the Fc loopFS118mAb2F-star Therapeutics