Format of bispecific antibodies (BsAbs)-Dual-affinity re-targeting antibody


Dual-affinity re-targeting proteins (DARTs) encompasses of two Fv fragments, containing two single antigen-binding sites formed when two Fv fragments heterodimerize. The Fv1 contains of a VH from antibody A and a VL from antibody B, whereas Fv2 contains VH from antibody B and VL from antibody A in the order of VL (1)-VH (2) and VL (2)-VH (1) (Fig. 1). This amalgamation permits DART to mimic natural interaction within an IgG molecule. Short linker sequences between the VL and VH segments encourage a posttranslational “diabody”-type association. The peptide linkers and the covalent linkage between the two DART chains limits the freedom of the antigen binding domains, resulting in a stable association between target and effector cells. DART can be synthesized in the mammalian expression systems. DART are more stable and potent. DART does not contain Fc region and, therefore it has a short serum half-life. Several DART antibodies are under development for T-cell redirection, modulation of receptor signaling and neutralization of viruses. DART molecules were found to be more consistent than BiTE molecules in targeting and killing B-cell lymphoma.

Fig. 1. The structure of dual-affinity re-targeting proteins (DARTs). The linker between heavy and light chains is as short as about five amino acids. Because of the short linker between the two domains of scFv, the two domains of the same scFv cannot pair and are forced to homodimerize with its homologous partner in another scFv. The adding of another cysteine residue at the end of VHA and VHB is helpful for the stability of this kind of bispecific antibody by forming a disulfide linkage (Adopted from: Asim A, Ejaj A, Qamar Z, Ahmar RM Mohammad O, Ghulam A. (2017) Recent advances in the development of novel protein scaffolds based therapeutics. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 102: 630-641).

Formats of bispecific antibodies (BsAbs)

Many formats have been developed for BsAb generation as listed in the following table.

FormatSchematic structureDescriptionExample BsAbTrademark Company
tandem VHHTandem VHH fragment-based BsAbN/A
tandem scFvPicture loading failed.Tandem ScFv fragment-based BsAbAMG330BiTETMAmgen
Dual-affinity re-targeting antibodyPicture loading failed.Tandem domain-exchanged Fv (can also be used to fuse with Fc domain to create whole Abs)FlotetuzumabDARTTMMacrogenics
DiabodyPicture loading failed.dimer of single-chain Fv (scFv) fragmentvixtimotamabReSTORETMAmphivena Therapeutics
(scFv)2-FabPicture loading failed.a Fab domain and two scFv domains bindA-337ITabTMGeneron/EVIVE Biotech
Rat–mouse hybrid IgGPicture loading failed.Full-size IgG-like half antibodies from two different speciesCatumaxomabTriomabTMTrion Pharma
Hetero heavy chain, Common light chainPicture loading failed.Hetero heavy chain, Common light chainEmicizumabART-IgTMGenentech/ Chugai/Roche
Controlled Fab arm exchangePicture loading failed.Recombin the parental half antibodies JNJ-64007957DuobodyTMGenmab/ Janssen
Hetero H, forced HL IgG1Picture loading failed.KIH technology for heterodimerization of 2 distinct H chains, replacing the native disulfide bond in one of the CH1-CL interfaces with an engineered disulfide bond to enhance the cognate of H and L paringMEDI5752DuetMabTMMedImmune/ AstraZeneca
cH IgG1Picture loading failed.Identical heavy chains; 2 different light chains: one kappa (κ) and one lambda (λ)NI-1701κλ bodyTMNovimmune SA
Hetero H, CrossMabPicture loading failed.KIH technology; domain crossover of immunoglobulin domains in the Fab regionVanucizumabCrossMabTMRoche
scFv-Fab IgGPicture loading failed.Fab-Fc; ScFv-FcVibecotamab;
XmabTM (the engineered Fc to enhance the generation of heterodimeric Fc);
Xencor/Amgen; YZYBio
VH1-VH2-CH1-Fc1(G1) x VL2-VL1-CL-Fc2(G1)Picture loading failed.2 binding motif in one half antibodySAR440234CODV-IgTMSanofi
VL1-CL1-VH2-CH2-Fc x VH1-CH1 x VL2-CL2Picture loading failed.2 binding motif in one half antibodyEMB-01FIT-IgTMEPIMAB BIOTHERAPEUTICS
VH-1-TCR Cα x VL-1-TCR Cβ; VH-2-CH-2-Fc x VL-2-CL-2Picture loading failed.KIH technology; TCR Cα/Cβ is used to substitute the CH1 and CL domain in one armWuXibodyTMWuXi Biologics
C-terminal linker of FcPicture loading failed.Link the other molecules at the C-terminal of FcAPVO442ADAPTIR-FLEXTMAptevo Therapeutics
Fc antigen binding sitePicture loading failed.2 natural binding sites; 2 additional binding sites in the Fc loopFS118mAb2F-star Therapeutics