Category Archives: add

Blog | Diagnoctic Technical Articles

Blog | Diagnostic Technical Articles 2019 nCoV (SARS CoV2 coronavirus) Spike trimer (P2-mutant, S1/S2 cleavage site(furin cleavage sequence)-mutant, trimerization modified) The world is in midst of the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 (2019nCoV) infection. The Spike protein (S-protein) of SARS-CoV-2 (2019nCoV) mediates receptor (ACE2) binding and cell entry and is the dominant target of the […]

Advantages and limitation of Nanobodies (single domain antibodies)

Nanobodies are frequently compared to polyclonal, monoclonal antibodies, antibody fragments, and small molecules. The production of nanobodies is simple and cost effective compared to the polyclonal antibodies. Besides, Nbs are stable in a wide range of temperatures and pH levels. Nanobodies are also compatible with genetic engineering methods, which allow scaffolding and alteration of amino […]

Application of nanobodies (single domain antibodies)

Nanobodies have been used for both diagnostic and therapeutic application due to its high stability, refoldability, and manipulable characteristics. In addition, VHH has been effectively used as a research tool. In Vitro Diagnostic Tests Nbs have been recommended for both in vitro as well as in vivo diagnostic tests. Early diagnosis of both infection and […]

Nanobody (single domain antibody) production

The production of nanobody primarily required to select a camelid animal for immunization for about 5–10 weeks. The effector B cells are extracted from the plasma peripheral lymph blood of the immunized camel to isolate the total RNA and cDNA synthesis for sequencing. Phage display technology is used to screen the specific binding ability of […]

Structure and Physicochemical Features of Nanobody (single domain antibody)

Nanobody (Nb) is the smallest natural antigen-specific binding functional fragment of about 12~15 kb (Figure 2D). The molecular weight of Nb is smaller than the monoclonal antibody mAb (~150 kb), Fab fragment (~55 kb) or HcAb (~90 kb) Figure 1A–C. Former study showed that these nanobodies can be genetically engineered from the heavy-chain antibody derived from camelids […]

Functional assay for neutralizing antibodies (NAb) discovery–Pseudotype virus (psedovirus, PSV) based and Neutralization Assays

The globalization of the world’s economies, accompanied by increasing international travel, changing climates, altered human behaviour and demographics is leading to the emergence of different viral diseases, many of which are highly pathogenic and hence are considered of great public and animal health importance. To undertake basic research and therapeutic development, many of these viruses […]

FDA approved neutralizing antibodies (NAb)

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against bacterial infections are more effective way to treat the antibiotic resistant strains. The antibacterial mAbs have several advantages such as reducing the antibiotic toxicity, treatment time and disease complications. there are numerous mAb products are under development for a range of infectious diseases. Currently, GeneMedi offers mAbs against gram negative bacteria, […]

Toxin A neutralizing antibodies (NAb)

Clostridium difficile continues to be one of the most prevalent hospital-acquired bacterial infections in the developed world. Alternative approaches under investigation to combat the anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria include fecal transplantation therapy, vaccines, and antibody-based immunotherapies. Inhibitory antibodies that recognize the primary C. difficilevirulence factors, toxin A and toxin B, are the most popular passive immunotherapies under investigation. […]

Shiga toxins (Stxs) neutralizing antibodies (NAb)

Shiga toxins (Stxs) are cytotoxic proteins secreted by Shigella dysenteriae 1 and some serogroups of Escherichia coli (called Stx1 in E. coli). Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) are foodborne pathogens that may colonize and damage the human colon to access to the bloodstream and damage the organs such as kidney and brain. Presently, there […]